Below you will find answers to the most frequently asked questions by our customers. If you cannot find the answer to your question  – feel free to contact us directly via e-mail or give us a call: (+49) 038294 33 00 60


Who uses DR2?

DR2 is designed for the use in sports medicine. It can be deployed in performance diagnostics, science and research as well as the planning and monitoring of training sessions. Our target clientele includes Olympic training centers, universities, sports physicians and professional coaches.


Where can DR2 be deployed?

The wearable, portable system can be used in laboratory and field environments.


How do I use DR2?

The sensor is placed within a sleeve above the group of muscles, which is relevant for the practiced exercise at a time. It has proved that the Vastus Medialis is for example good for measurements relating to running or cycling. Within the DR2, a detector receives data and a special algorithm processes them before they are send via Bluetooth or ANT+ to the corresponding monitor (e.g. smart phone, smart watch). Therefore, the athlete is informed about his current performance status and measuring parameters anytime.


Which parameters can DR2 measure?

DR2 serves for the measuring and analyses of multiple parameters that are of relevance for performance diagnostics and training control.

  • Muscle Oxygen Saturation (SmO2)

Muscle Oxygen Saturation (SmO2) shows the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin to total hemoglobin, within the measured group of muscle. The oxygen saturation of the active musculature is presented in relative numbers.

  • Tissue Hemoglobin Index (THI)

Tissue Hemoglobin Index (THI) corresponds to the amount of hemoglobin presents within the volume of tissue measured. It is therefore proportional to the local blood volume.

  • Pulse Strength (PI)

Pulse strength (PI) represents the strength of the pulsation of the hemoglobin amount at the measuring point within the muscle.

  • Pulse Rate (PR)

Pulse rate (PR) indicates the amount of pulse beats per minute. In healthy humans it corresponds with the heart rate frequency.

Soon, further parameters will be available.

Respiratory Rate (RR)

Respiratory Rate (RR) shows the quantity of breaths per minute. The algorithm of the DR2 calculates the figure.

Pulse Rate Variability (PRV)

Pulse Rate Variability (PRV) provides insight into the variability of the time interval between two pulse beats.


Why is the determination of oxygen saturation important for an optimal training monitoring?

If the muscle is sufficiently supplied with oxygen, it works in the aerobic zone. Cellular processes work optimally, the muscle tissue enlarges and performance can be increased. If the need for oxygen cannot be covered anymore, e.g. due to an increased load, cellular processes shift into the anaerobic zone, resulting in a hyperacidity of the body. The muscles tire rapidly and the activity can only be sustained for a short period of time. To achieve a maximum efficiency of a training session, it is important to know the current training zones an athlete is in.


Which technic is DR2 using and how does it work?

The DR2 system uses the optoelectronic Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) technology to visualize reactions within the active muscle tissue that can be traced back to a local lack of oxygen. Continuously, light of discrete wavelengths between 500 (visible) and 900 nm (near-infrared) is being emitted into the skin. Depending on the wavelengths, part of the light gets absorbed by hemoglobin. Partially the light scatters back to a detector within the DR2. Changes in the concentration of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin affect the measured light intensity of certain wavelengths.


How does the system differ from traditional performance diagnostic methods: lactate diagnostics and spiroergometry?

Traditional performance diagnostic methods, such as lactate diagnostics and spiroergometry, can only indicate systematic, mixed overall physical states but not the local current state of active muscles. However, DR2 can provide precisely the parameters, which reflect the current state of the strained muscles.

DR2 has many advantages compared to other methods of performance diagnostics; it can be used not only in laboratory but also in field environments, the measurements are non-invasive and no second person is required for blood sampling or oxygen measurement. The device is easy to handle and use and therefore much more user-friendly than traditional methods.


How does DR2 differ from other wearables?

Most wearables for performance monitoring and training control, which can be used directly during a training session, are only able to measure one parameter: mainly heart rate. In such cases, the heart rate zones need to be defined beforehand. Either through a prior lactate diagnostic test or by using standard values. Aerobic and anaerobic thresholds shall be made visible by using such zones. An actual measurement of oxygen supply does not take place.

Recent studies show that heart rate is easily influenced by external factors (illness, tiredness, nutrition etc.). Most wearables cannot take such factors into account.

With DR2 however, through the measurement of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2), a real-time analysis of the actual state of the athlete is taken place. Furthermore, not just one parameter is shown, but multiple parameters that are of relevance for a reliable diagnostic.


What is the difference between SmO2 and SpO2?

DR2 for measuring SmO2 is placed above a group of muscles, which is of relevance for the kind of activity at the time of measurement. It shows the muscular oxygen saturation, in other words, it shows how much oxygen is left after the muscles have used up the amount they need for the current activity.

SpO2  is measured by using pulse oximeters that are usually placed on the forefinger. It shows the measured oxygen saturation of the arterial blood determined with the method of pulse oximetry. The parameter presents the percentage of the oxygen saturation of red blood cells within the blood volume. SpO2 is of less value for performance diagnostic than SmO2.


What is included in the scope of delivery?

The full-featured DR2 hardware and software set consists of:

– 1-4 DR2 NIRS/VIS sensors

– 1 OXY4Pro analysis software license

– 1 leg sleeve (size freely selectable)

– 1 micro USB cable

– 1 storage case


Can I use DR2 for research purposes?

Yes, DR2 can be used for research purposes. The associated software can be used in comparative analysis of NIRS/VIS measurement and traditional lactate threshold diagnostics and spiroergometry. Interfaces to commonly used spiroergometry and lactate threshold test equipment (or the respective software) have been integrated.


Does DR2 have a medial approval?

The long-term plan is to get a medical approval acc. to the German Act on Medical Devices (MPG) for DR2. Currently it is not an approved medical product.